Die „Annales" im globalen Kontext
The Foundation of the ,Annales', 60 years ago, has had great influence on the development of the historical sciences in the United States and Europe. The founders of the ,Annales' Bloch and Febvre fought against the domination of political history and tried to establish economic and social history as well as the history of mentality. The following generation (Braudel, Labrousse u.a.) introduced quantifying methods and stressed the importance of the ,social structure'. These French Historians launched new topics (history of climate, history of childhood, history of death etc.) and new methods of research, but ,Cliometrics', psychohistory and history of everyday etc. have also been developed in the United States, England and Germany, partly in close contact with the ,Annales', partly completly independantly. In fact all major innovations of the ,Annales' have its origins in backdating traditions: ,Geohistoire' originates from the french ,geographie humaine' and the German geographer Friedrich Ratze); the global approach was already chosen by the Belgian historian Pirenne; Karl Lamprecht and Max Weber already worked with the comparative method. At the end of his article the author summarizes the achievements of the ,Annales': the consequent and successful realization of their scientific goals.