Between Chinese Youth and the Party: The Communist Youth League’s Revival and Adjustments in the Early Post-Mao Era
Keywords:Chinese communist youth league, Chinese youth movement, Youth work, Hu Yaobang, Mass organisations, People's Republic of China
Since the beginning of the new century Chinese leaders have attempted to increase the ‘relevance’ of the Communist Youth League (CYL) by calling for a more responsive organisation as a way to cultivate political loyalty at a time of profound social change. Yet, the call for more responsive patterns of work is not new. Mainly based on the Chinese youth press, official documents, and leaders’ speeches, as well as memoirs and biographical material, this paper provides an organisational analysis of the CYL in the post Cultural Revolution period, focusing on the functional adjustments that were discussed when the CYL was revived nationally and the economic reforms were launched. As such, it explores early national initiatives, discourses, and debates surrounding the reform of the work of the CYL as developed through the 1980s, and highlights the influence of reform-minded political leaders in pursuing a new approach to “youth work” that, by envisaging a loosening of the Party’s control over League affairs, aimed at moving away from past practices and enabling the organisation to better relate to a wide range of youth concerns. This paper sheds light on the way the policies of reform and opening up impacted upon a traditional political body that was called to increasing responsiveness to the demands coming from society, but also shows the structural paradox of an institution embedded in the Leninist political system and designed to serve as an intermediary between the Party and the country’s youth.
Audin, Judith, and Jerome Doyon. 2019. Editorial. Intermediary Political Bodies of the Party-State. A Sociology of Mass and Grassroots Organizations in Contemporary China. China Perspectives 2: 3–8. https://doi.org/10.4000/chinaperspectives.9012.
Barnett, Doak A. 1951. Mass Political Organizations in Communist China. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 277: 76–88.
Baum, Richard. 1994. Burying Mao. Chinese Politics in the Age of Deng Xiaoping. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Bennett, Gordon A., and Ronald N. Montaperto. 1971. Red Guard: The political biography of Dai Hsiao-ai. New York: Doubleday Company.
Ceccagno, Antonella, and Sofia Graziani. 2016. Chinese Volunteering in Africa: Drivers, Issues and Future Prospects. Annali di Ca’ Foscari. Serie orientale 52: 297–333.
Ceng, Tongrong 曾統榮, Zhu Huilun 朱會倫, and Zhang Biao 張飆. 1980. “Bashi niandai qingnian de tedian, ni zhidao ma? 八十年代青年的特點，你知道嗎？” (“Do you know the characteristics of the 1980s youth?”). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, July 24, 2.
Ch’i, Hsi-sheng. 1991. Politics of Disillusionment: The Chinese Communist Party under Deng Xiaoping, 1978–1989. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Chan, Anita. 1985. Children of Mao: Personality Development and Political Activism in the Red Guard Generation. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Chen, Qimao 陳啟懋. 2012. Hu Yaobang yu “wenhua dageming” hou boluanfanzheng shiqi de qingnian gongzuo 胡耀邦與‘文化大革命’後撥亂反正時期的青年工作 (Hu Yaobang and youth work in the period of bringing order out of chaos after the Cultural Revolution). Dangdai qingnian yanjiu 當代青年研究 10.
Cherrington, Ruth. 1991. China's Students: The struggle for democracy. London: Routledge.
Chiang, Chen-ch’ang. 1983. Youth Problems in Mainland China. Issues & Studies 19 (5): 33–45.
Clark, Paul. 2012. Youth Culture in China. From Red Guards to netizens. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Communist Youth League Congress. 1982. Communist Youth League Congress Opens. Beijing Review 52: 4.
Daibiao qingnian 代表青年. 1980. Daibiao qingnian cai neng xiyin qingnian 代表青年才能吸引青年 (The only way to attract youth is to represent them). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報 18 October, p. 1.
Dai, Huang 戴煌. 2004. Hu Yaobang yu pingfan yuanjia cuo’an 胡耀邦與平反冤假錯案 (Hu Yaobang and the Reversal of Unjust, False, and Mistaken Cases). Beijing: Zhongguo gongren chubanshe.
Ding, Wang 丁望. 1999. Hu Jintao: Beijing nianyi shiji lingxiu 胡錦濤：北京廿一世紀領袖 (Hu Jintao: Beijing’s 21st-Century Leader). Hong Kong: Dangdai mingjia chubanshe.
Ding, Wang 丁望. 2005. Hu Jintao yu Gongqingtuan jiebanqun 胡錦濤與共青團接班群 (Hu Jintao and the successors of the Communist Youth League). Hong Kong: Dangdai mingjia chubanshe.
Ding, Xueliang. 1994. The Decline of Communism in China: Legitimacy Crisis, 1977-1989. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Doyon, Jérôme. 2020. The Strength of a Weak Organization: The Communist Youth League as a Path to Power in Post-Mao China. The China Quarterly 243: 780–800.
Doyon, Jérôme. 2019. Low-cost Corporatism. The Chinese Communist Youth League and its Sub-organizations in post-Mao China. China Perspectives 2: 39–46. https://doi.org/10.4000/chinaperspectives.9084.
Fang, Qiang. 2020. Mandate for Justice. Chinese College Students and the Tiananmen Demonstration. In A Century of Student Movements in China: The Mountain Movers, 1919–2019, edited by X. Li and Q. Fang, 233–266. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Francis, Corinna-Barbara. 1991. The Institutional Roots of Student Political Culture: Official Student Politics at Beijing University. In Chinese Education: Problems, Policies, and Prospects, edited by I. Epstein, 394–415. New York: Garland.
Frolic, Michael B. 1981. Mao’s People: Sixteen Portraits of Life in Revolutionary China. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Funnell, Victor. 1970. The Chinese Communist Youth Movement, 1949–1966. The China Quarterly (42): 105–130.
Gao, Delin 高德林. 1980. Gongqingtuan yao chengwei ‘qingnian zhi jia’ 共青團要成為‘青年之家’ (The CYL should become the ‘home of youth’). Zhongguo qingnian 中國青年 11: 3.
Gold, Thomas B. 1996. Youth and the State. In The Individual and the State in China, edited by B. Hook, 175–195. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Goldman, Merle. 1991. Hu Yaobang’s Intellectual Network and the Theory Conference of 1979. The China Quarterly 126: 219–242.
Goldman, Merle. 1994. Sowing the Seeds of Democracy. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
Goldman, Merle. 2005. From Comrade to Citizen: The Struggle for Political Rights in China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gong, Bin 龔彬. 1990. Zhongshi Gongqingtuanyuan zixing tuotuan wenti 重視共青團員自行脫團問題 (Attaching importance to the problem of voluntary withdrawals from League membership). Qingnian Yanjiu 青年研究 7: 43–44.
Gongqingtuan zhongyang bangongting 共青團中央辦公廳. 1958. Tuan de wenjian huibian 團的文件彙編1958 (Selected documents of the League 1958). Beijing.
Gongqingtuan zhongyang bangongting 共青團中央辦公廳. 1964. Tuan de wenjian huibian 團的文件彙編1964 (Selected documents of the League 1964). Vol. 1. Beijing.
Gongqingtuan zhongyang bangongting 共青團中央辦公廳. 1979. Tuan de wenjian huibian 團的文件彙編1979 (Selected documents of the League 1979). Beijing.
Gongqingtuan zhongyang bangongting 共青團中央辦公廳, ed. 2001. Dang de shiyi jie san zhong quanhui yilai Gongqingtuan zhongyao wenjian huibian 黨的十一屆三中全會以來共青團重要文件彙編 (A collection of important documents of the CYL since the third plenum of the 11th CCP Central Committee). Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian chubanshe.
Gongqingtuan zhongyang yanjiushi 共青團中央研究室(ed.). 1991. Quangguo qingshaonian gongzuo zhengce jingxuan 全國青少年工作政策精選 (Selected national policies related to youth work), Beijing: Gaige chubanshe.
Graziani, Sofia. 2014. Youth and the Making of Modern China. European Journal of East Asian Studies 13(1): 117–49.
Graziani, Sofia. 2019. “China’s Communist Youth League, transnational networks and Sino-European interactions in the early Cold War”. In Janick Marina Schaufelbuehl, Marco Wyss, and Valeria Zanier (eds.), Europe and China in the Cold War: Exchanges Beyond the Bloc Logic and the Sino-Soviet Split. Leiden: Brill, 108–133.
Guo, Gang. 2005. Party Recruitment of College Students in China. Journal of Contemporary China 14 (43), 371–393.
Guo, Xiaoping 郭嘵平. 1992. Zhongguo Gongqingtuan shi 中國共青團史 (A history of China’s CYL). Wuhan: Huazhong shifan daxue chubanshe.
Han, Honghong 韓洪洪. 2009. Hu Yaobang zai lishi zhuanzhe guantou (1975–1982) 胡耀邦在歷史轉折關頭 (Hu Yaobang at a turning-point of history). Beijing: Renmin chubanshe.
Han, Ying. 1978. Glorious Mission of the Chinese Youth. Peking Review, 46, November, 7–23.
Han, Ying 韓英. 1980. Tuan shida yilai de gongzuo he 1980 nian de renwu – xiang gongqingtuan shi jie er zhong quanhui de baogao 團十大以來的工作和1980年的任務 – 向共青團十屆二中全會的報告, Tuannei tongxun 團內通訊 2: 4–18.
Han, Ying 韓英. 1981. Jiji zuohao tuan de fazhan gongzuo 積極做好團的發展工作 (Do a good job in League development). Tuan nei tongxun 團內通訊 7: 2–5.
Healy, Paul M. 1982. The Chinese Communist Youth League 1949–1979. Griffith Asian Papers (4). Nathan: Griffith University, School of Modern Asian Studies.
Hong, Feng. 1985. Rural League organisations should continue to be strengthened. Chinese Education XVIII (1): 21–22 (Original appeared in 1982 as: Nongcun tuan zuzhide jianshe jixu jiaqiang 農村團組織的建設繼續加強. Jilin qingnian 吉林青年 5: 9).
Honig, Emily, and Gail Hershatter. 1988. Personal Voices: Chinese Women in the 1980’s. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Hooper, Beverley. 1985. Youth in China. New York: Penguin Books.
Jiefang sixiang 解放思想. 1980. Jiefang sixiang, lizhi gaige, quantuan dongshou, jiaqiang jiceng 解放思想，立志改革，全團動手，加強基層 (Emancipate thought, be determined to reform, let the League start action, strengthen grassroots units). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報 18 October, 1.
Jin, Yihong. 2001. The All-China Women’s Federation: Challenges and Trends. In Chinese Women Organizing: Cadres, Feminists, Muslims, Queers, edited by Ping-Chun Hsiung, Maria Jaschok, and Cecilia Milwertz, 123–140. Oxford and New York: Berg.
Kallgren, Joyce K. 1973. The Chinese Communist Party: Structure, Membership, and Mass Organization. In China: A Handbook, edited by Y. Wu, 197–220. New York: Praeger.
Kou, Chien-wen 寇健文. 2001. Gongqingtuan yu Zhonggong zhengzhi jingying de zhenbu: Tuan zhongyang changwei shitu fazhan diaocha 共青團與中共政治精英的甄補：團中央常委試圖發展調查 (The Communist Youth League and the Recruitment of the Chinese Communist Political Elite: A Survey of the CYL CC’s Attempts to Develop). Zhongguo dalu yanjiu 中國大陸研究44(9): 1–26.
Kou, Chien-wen. 2014. The rise of Youth League affiliates and their path to the top. In Choosing China’s Leaders, edited by Chien-Wen Kou and Xiaowei Zang (eds.), 153–171. Abingdon: Routledge.
Kwong, Julia. 1994. Ideological Crisis among China's Youths: Values and Official Ideology. The British Journal of Sociology 45(2): 247–264.
Leader, Shelah Gilbert. 1974. The Communist Youth League and the Cultural Revolution. Asian Survey XIV (8): 700-715.
Li, Anshan 李安山. 1988. Guanyu guonei zhengti gaige de jidian yijian 關於國內整體改革的幾點意見 (Some opinions on political reform in China). Xin Guancha 新觀察, September 10, 14–15.
Li, Wuyi 李五一. 1989. Jiji wentuo di tuijin Tuan de tizhi gaige 積極穩妥地推進團的體制改革 (Advance the CYL system reform in an active and steady way). Qingnian gongzuo 青年工作 1: 11–13.
Li, Datong. 2007. China’s Youth League faction: incubus of power? OpenDemocracy, 31 October, link: https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/china_s_youth_league_faction_incubus_of_power/.
Li, Yuqi 李玉奇. 2009. Zhongguo Gongqingtuan shigao 1922–2008 中國共青團史稿1922–2008 (A Draft History of the Chinese CYL 1922–2008). Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian chubanshe.
Liu, Ren 劉人. 1980. Tuan daihui de xuanju zhidu yingdang gaige 團代會的選舉制度應當改革 (The electoral system of the CYL congresses should be reformed). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, 23 September, 1.
Liu, Alan P. L. 1984. Opinions and Attitudes of Youth in the People’s Republic of China. Asian Survey 24(9): 975–996.
Liu, Yandong 劉延東. 1989. Yi ‘si you’ wei mubiao, yi shijian wei ketang nuli peiyang wuchan jieji geming shiye jiebanren – zai gongqingtuan di er ci sixiang zhengzhi gongzuo huiyi shang de baogao 以四有為目標，以實踐為課堂，努力培養無產階級革命事業接班人 – 在共青團第二次思想政治工作會議上的報告 (With the ‘Four Haves’ as our goal, with practice as our classroom, let us strive to develop successors to the proletarian revolutionary enterprise: A report to the 2nd ideo-political work meeting of the CYL). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, 23 November, 2.
Lü, Fuchun 呂福春. 2007. Zhongguo fuhexing shetuan yanjiu: yi Zhongguo gongqingtuan de zhineng bianqian wei ge’an 中國複合型社團研究：以中國共青團的職能變遷為個案 (Research into complex associations in China: A case study of the change in functions of the CYL). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin chubanshe.
Luo, Chengquan 羅成全. 1996. Zhongguo gaige dachao zhong de gongqingtuan 中國改革大潮中的共青團 (The Communist Youth League in the high tide of China's reforms). Tianjin: Tianjin renmin chubanshe.
Ma, Beibei 馬北北. 1980. Zhe zhen xiang ge hunyin jieshaosuo 這真像個婚姻介紹所 (This is a real marriage introduction bureau). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, 19 August, 1.
Ma, Qiusha. 2006. Non-governmental organizations in contemporary China: Paving the way to civil society? New York and London: Routledge.
Misra, Kalpana. 1998. From Post-Maoism to Post-Marxism: The Erosion of Official Ideology in Deng’s China. New York and London: Routledge.
Montaperto, Ronald. 1981. The Chinese Communist Youth League, 1970–1974: A Study of Adaptive Behaviour. In Organizational Behaviour in Chinese Society, edited by S. L. Greenblatt, R. W. Wilson, and A.A. Wilson, 209–230. New York: Praeger.
Ownby, David. 1986. Growing Alienation among Chinese Youths. In China's Establishment Intellectuals, edited by C. L. Hamrin and T. Cheek, 212–246. Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe.
Pan, Yihong. 2002. Tempered in the revolutionary furnace: China’s youth in the rustication movement. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Pang, Ching Lin. 1988. “The Communist Youth League and the Changing Values of Chinese Youth in the 1980s.” MA thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
Pei, De 培德. 1980. Ankang tielu fenju tuanwei ba hunyin lian’ai wenti lieru richeng – tuan ganbu rexin wei qingnian qianxian daqiao 安康鐵路分局團委把婚姻戀愛問題列入日程：團幹部熱心為青年牽線搭橋 (The CYL committee of the Ankang Railway Branch Administration puts the issue of love and marriage on the agenda: League cadres warm-heartedly act as go-between for the young). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, 19 August, 1.
Pringsheim, Klaus H. 1962. The Functions of the Chinese Communist Youth Leagues (1920–1949). The China Quarterly 12: 75–91.
Qiao, Wei 喬衛, Qu Xueli 曲學利, and Zhang Bin 張斌. 1988. Daxuesheng Gongqingtuan jianshe wenti tansuo 大學生共青團建設問題探索 (Investigation on the issue of CYL construction among university students). In Xinshiqi daxuesheng sixiang zhengzhi jiaoyu yanjiu 新時期大學生思想政治教育研究 (Research on ideological and political education of university students in the new era), edited by Zhonggong Beijing shiwei yanjiushi, 212–227. Beijing: Beijing shifan daxue chubanshe.
Qiu, Zhi 邱志. 1980. Yao gei Tuan kaizhan gongzuo de zizhuquan 要給團開展工作的自主權 (We have to give the CYL more power to make its own decisions to develop its work). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, 2 December, 1.
Rosen, Stanley. 1985. Prosperity, Privatization, and China's Youth. Problems of Communism 34: 1–28.
———. 1989a. Political Education and Student Response: Some Background Factors Behind the 1989 Beijing Demonstrations. Issues & Studies 25(10): 12–39.
———. 1989b. Value Change Among Post-Mao Youth: The Evidence from Survey Data. In Unofficial China: Popular Culture and Thought in the People's Republic, edited by P. Link, R. Madsen, and P. G. Pickowicz, 193–216. San Francisco and London: Westview Press.
———. 1990a. The Chinese Communist Party and Chinese Society: Popular Attitudes Toward Party Membership and the Party’s Image. The Australian Journal of Chinese Affairs 24: 51–92.
———. 1990b. The Impact of Reform Policies on Youth Attitudes. In Chinese Society on the Eve of Tiananmen: The Impact of Reform, edited by D. Davis and E. Vogel, 283–305. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
———. 1992. Students and the State in China: The Crisis in Ideology and Organization. In State and Society in China: The Consequences of Reform, edited by A. Rosenbaum, 167–91. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
———. 2004. The State of Youth/Youth and the State in Early 21st-Century China: The Triumph of the Urban Rich? In State and Society in 21st Century China: Crisis, Contention, and Legitimation, edited by P. H. Gries and S. Rosen, 159–179. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon.
———. 2009. Contemporary Chinese Youth and the State. The Journal of Asian Studies 68(2): 359–369.
Saich, Tony. 1989. Modernization and Participation in the People's Republic of China. In China: Modernization in the 1980s, edited by J. Y. S. Cheng, 39-68. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press.
Schoenhals, Michael. 1991. The 1978 Truth Criterion Controversy. The China Quarterly 126: 243–268.
Sheng, Ping 盛平 (ed.). 2007. Hu Yaobang sixiang nianpu: 1975–1989 胡耀邦思想年譜 1975–1989 (A Chronicle of Hu Yaobang’s Thought, 1975-1989). 2 vols. Hong Kong: Taide shidai chubanshe.
Shirk, Susan. 1982. Competitive Comrades: Career Incentives & Student Strategies in China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Su, Feng 穌楓. 1981. Yi nian lai Zhonggong de qingnian gongzuo 一年來中共的青年工作 (The CCP youth work in the last year). Feiqing Yuebao 匪情月報 23 (8): 48–53.
Sun, Zhimin 孫志民. 1980. Tianjin shizhang Hu Qili tan Tuan de gongzuo gaige shi qiangdiao Gongqingtuan yao gaodian jiaoyu qingnian de wuzhi shouduan 天津市長胡啟立談團的工作改革時強調共青團要搞點教育青年的物質手段 (While talking about the reform of CYL work, the Mayor of Tianjin Hu Qili stressed that the CYL has to make use of material means to educate young people). Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, October 14, 1.
Tai, Enpu. 1985. Townships should have a full-time League cadre. Chinese Education XVIII (1): 20 (Original appeared in 1983 as: Xiang yi ji ying you zhuanzhi Tuan gan 鄉一級應有專職團幹. Zhongguo qingnian bao 中國青年報, November 10: 1).
Tang, Bo 唐勃. 1985. Zhonggong Gongqingtuan zhi yanjiu 中共共青團之研究 (A study of the CCP-led CYL). Taibei: Youshi wenhua shiye gongsi.
Teiwes, Frederick C. 2000. The Chinese State during the Maoist Era. In The Modern Chinese State, edited by D. Shambaugh, 105–160. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Townsend, James. 1967. The Revolutionization of Chinese Youth: A Study of Chung-kuo Ch’ing-nien. China Research Monograph, no. 1, Berkeley: University of California, Center for Chinese Studies.
Townsend, James R. 1969. Political Participation in Communist China. 3rd ed. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Tsai, Wen-Hsuan and Liao Xingmiu. 2021. Institutional Changes, Influences and Historical Junctures in the Communist Youth League of China. The China Quarterly, September, 1–20.
Tsimonis, Konstantinos. 2021. The Chinese Communist Youth League: Juniority and Responsiveness in a Party Youth Organization. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
Unger, Jonathan. 1982. Education Under Mao: Class and Competition in Canton Schools, 1960–1980. New York: Columbia University Press.
Vogel, Ezra F. 2011. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Wang, Chang-ling. 1983. A Study of the 11th CYL National Congress. Issues & Studies 19 (3): 11–30.
Wang, Hsueh-wen. 1970. Maoist Rectification of the Young Communist League. Issues & Studies, November, 29–38.
White, Gordon. 1993. Riding the Tiger: The Politics of Economic Reform in Post-Mao China. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
———. 1996. The Dynamics of Civil Society in Post-Mao China. In The Individual and the State in China, edited by Brian Hook, 196–221. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Wu, Mu 吳木. 1981. Guanyu xin shiqi Gongqingtuan gongzuo ji ge wenti de tantao 關於新時期共青團工作幾個問題的探討 (Explorations of some questions on the CYL's work in the new era). Qingnian Yanjiu 青年研究 13: 1–11.
Xu, Luo. 1995. The “Shekou Storm:” Changes in the Mentality of Chinese Youth Prior to Tiananmen. The China Quarterly 142: 541–572.
———. 2001. Searching for Life's Meaning: Changes and Tensions in the Worldviews of Chinese Youth in the 1980s. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
Xu, Ying. 2012. Chinese Communist Youth League, Political Capital and the Legitimizing of Volunteering in China. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 17 (2–3): 95–112.
Yang, Zhongmei. 1988. Hu Yaobang: A Chinese Biography. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Yue, Qingyou 岳清友. 1980. Gongqingtuan ying you zuzhi shang de dulixing 共青團應有組織上的獨立性 (The CYL should be organisationally independent). Zhongguo qingnian 中國青年 11: 2–3.
Zhang, Hua 張華. 2013. Zhongguo Gongchanzhuyi Qingniantuan zhineng yanjiu 中國共產主義青年團職能研究 (Studies on the Functions of the Communist Youth League of China). Beijing: Renmin chubanshe.
Zhao, Dingxin. 2001. The power of Tiananmen: State-society relations and the 1989 Beijing Student Movement. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Zheng, Guang 鄭洸. 2004. Gongqingtuan lishi shang de ren he shi 共青團歷史上的人和事 (People and events in the history of the Communist Youth League). Beijing: Zhongguo qingshaonian yanjiu zhongxin.
Zhong, Zhaoyun 鐘兆雲, and Wang, Chengze. 1999. Xiang Nan zai Fujian 向南在福建 (Xiang Nan in Fujian province). Fuzhou: Fujian renmin chu¬banshe.
Zhonggong Qinghai shengwei 中共青海省委. 1980. Zhonggong Qinghai shengwei di yi shuji Liang Buting tan Gongqingtuan de gaige: Dangwei yao gei Gongqingtuan gengda de zizhuquan 中共青海省委第一書記梁步庭談共青團的改革：黨委要給共青團更大的自主權 (The first secretary of the Qinghai CCP provincial committee talks about reform of the Communist Youth League: the Party committees should give the League more autonomy in making its own decisions). Renmin ribao 人民日報, 29 November, 3.
Zhonggong zhongyang pizhun Tuan Zhongyang shujichu 中共中央批准團中央書記處. 1979. Zhonggong zhongyang pizhun tuan Zhongyang shujichu guanyu wei Xiang Nan tongzhi pingfan de baogao 中共中央批准團中央書記處關於為向南同志平反的報告 (Report of the Secretariat of the CCP CC Approval Group on the rehabilitation of Comrade Xiang Nan). Tuan nei tongxun 團內通訊 7: 2–3.
Zhonggong zhongyang wenxian yanjiushi 中共中央文獻研究室, ed. 1986. Shierda yilai zhongyao wenxian xuanbian 十二大以來重要文獻選編 (A selection of important documents since the 12th Party Congress). 3 vols. Beijing: Renmin chubanshe.
Zhonggong zhongyang zuzhibu 中共中央組織部, Zhonggong zhongyang dangshi yanjiushi 中共中央黨史研究室, and Zhongyang dang’anguan 中央檔案館 (eds.). 2000. Zhongguo gongchandang zuzhishi ziliao, 1921–1997 中國共產黨組織史資料 1921-1997 (Materials on the organisational history of the CCP, 1921–1997). vol. 19. Beijing: Zhonggong dangshi chubanshe.
Zhongguo qingnian gongzuo nianjian bianji weiyuanhui 中國青年工作年鑒編輯委員會, ed. 1987. Zhongguo qingnian gongzuo nianjian 1986 中國青年工作年鑒 1986 (Yearbook of China’s Youth Work 1986). Beijing: Zhongguo qingnian chubanshe.
Zhongyang tuanxiao qingnian gongzuo jiaoyanshi 中央團校青年工作教研室, ed. 1983. Gongqingtuan gongzuo xuexi cankao ziliao 共青團工作學習參考資料 (CYL work reference material). Vol. 3 (neibu material). Beijing.
Zhongyang tuanxiao qingniantuan gongzuo jiaoyanshi 中央團校青年團工作教研室, ed. 1979. Zhongguo qingnian yundong lishi wenjian xuanbian 中國青年運動歷史文件選編 (A selection of documents on the history of the Chinese youth movement). Teaching reference material (neibu). Beijing.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Sofia Graziani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.