Japanese Gozan Monks and Hangzhou’s West Lake

Visualising Cultural Appropriation in Middle Period East Asia


  • Xiaolin Duan North Carolina State University




Gozan, monks, visual culture, cultural appropriation, West Lake


During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, Japanese monks traveled to Hangzhou and spent time around West Lake. At the time, Hangzhou was known for hosting five temples among the imperially recognised “Five Mountains and Ten Monasteries”. During their stay in Hangzhou, Japanese monks communicated with local monks and scholars, wrote poems, and observed the monasteries. Diagrams of the Five Mountains and Ten Temples, which details the temples’ architecture and furniture styles, was later referred to in constructing the Japanese Buddhist system. At the same time, these monks rendered their sightseeing experience in poems, circulating words about the lake’s scenic beauty. Place names around the lake frequently appeared in poetry gatherings, and more poems were composed for paintings about the lake. The lake became a cultural trope within and beyond the Gozan literature, featuring iconic place names, visual culture, and multilayered mobility in real and imagined dimensions. The example of West Lake in Gozan culture offers a case study for cultural appropriation and the role that landscape appreciation can play in this process. Locations were crucial in trans-cultural appropriations. Specific places serve as anchored loci for organising and systemising a developing body of cultural knowledge.



Download data is not yet available.


Primary sources:

Can Tiantai Wutai shan ji 參天台五臺山記 [The Record of a Pilgrimage to the Tiantai and Wu-tai Mountains]. Jōjin 奝然. https://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&res=924516.

Chashu 茶疏 [Exploratory Notes on Tea]. Lu Yu 陸羽. https://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&res=806171.

Dai nihon bukkyō zensho 大日本佛教全書 [Complete Buddhist Works of Japan]. 1912–22. Tōkyō: Bussho Kankōkai.

Fangyu shenglan 方輿勝覽 [Exhaustive Overview of all Parts of the Empire]. Zhu Mu 祝穆 (?–1255). https://ctext.org/library.pl?if=en&res=538.

Fumyō kokushi goroku 智觉普明国师语录 [Record of the Sayings by Teacher of the State Zhijue Puming]. 1937. Myōha. Reprinted from Hōtōji edition.

Gujin tushu jicheng 古今圖書集成 [Synthesis of Books and Illustrations Past and Present]. 2004. Chen Menglei 陳夢雷 (1650–1741) et al.. In Wang Guoping 王國平ed.. Xihu wenxian jicheng 西湖文獻集成 [Collection of Literature about West Lake], vol. 1. Hangzhou: Hangzhou chubanshe.

Hangzhou Shang Tianzhu jiangsi zhi 杭州上天竺講寺志 [Gazetteer of the Upper Tianzhu Teaching Monastery of Hangzhou]. 1994. Monk Guangbin 釋廣賓. Taipei: Mingwen shuju.

Honchō kōsōden 本朝高僧传 [Eminent Monks of Our Kingdom]. 1979. Dainihon Bukkyo Zensho.

Hua ji 畫繼 [Continuation on Painting]. Deng Chun 鄧椿. https://ctext.org/wiki.pl?if=gb&res=314613.

Lingyin sizhi 靈隱寺志 [Gazetteer of the Soul’s Retreat Monastery]. Jidian 濟顛 and Sun Zhi 孫治 (ca. 17th century). Siku quanshu.

Kyŏngam chip 絅庵集 [Anthology of Jiong’an]. 2007. Sin Wan 申琓. In Han’guk munjip ch’onggan 韓國文集叢刊 [Korean Literature Series], vol. 47. Sŏul-si: Minjok Munhwa Ch’ujinhoe.

Mengliang lu 夢梁錄 [Record of Millet Dreams].1988. Wu Zimu 吳自牧. In Meng Yuanlao 孟元老et al., Dongjing meng hua lu (wai si zhong) 東京夢華錄(外四種)[The Eastern Capital: A Dream of Splendours Past (plus four titles)]. Annotated by Zhou Feng 周峰. Beijing: Wenhua yishu chubanshe.

Nenggai zhai manlu 能改齋漫錄 [Casual Records of the Nenggai Studio]. Wu Zeng吳曾. https://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=80995.

Sangch’on ko象村稿 [Collection of Xiangcun]. 1999. Sin Hŭm申钦. In Han’guk munjip ch’onggan韓國文集叢刊, vol. 71. Sŏul-si: Minjok Munhwa Ch’ujinhoe.

Shishi leiyuan事實類苑 [Encyclopaedia in the Song Dynasty]. Jiang Shaoyu 江少虞. https://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=641.

Shōkenkō 蕉堅藁 [Drafts by the Man of the Way of Plantain Strength]. 1998. Zekkai Chūshin 絶海中津, annotated by Hideo Kageki 蔭木英雄. Osaka: Seibun dō shuppan.

Syotosyū 初渡集 [First Crossing Collection]. Sakugen Shūryō 策彥周良. Dainihon Bukkyō Zensho.

Pingzhou ketan 萍州可談 [Matters Worth Discussing from Pingzhou]. Zhu Yu 朱彧. https://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=81003.

Qingxian ji 清獻集 [Qingxian Collection]. Zhao Bian 趙抃 (1008–1084). https://ctext.org/library.pl?if=gb&res=92.

Xianchun Lin’an zhi 咸淳臨安志 [Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Xianchun Reign]. 1990. Qian Yueyou 潛說友. In Song Yuan fangzhi congkan 宋元方志叢刊 [Gazetteer Collection of the Song and Yuan Dynasties]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Xihu lansheng shixu 西湖覽勝詩序 [Preface to the Scenery Poems of West Lake]. 2004. Xia Ji 夏基 (1623–ca. 1672). In Wang Guoping 王國平ed. Xihu wenxian jicheng 西湖文獻集成 [Collection of Literature about West Lake], vol. 9. Hangzhou: Hangzhou chubanshe.

Xihu youlan zhi 西湖遊覽志 [Gazetteer of Sightseeing around West Lake]. 1980. Tian Rucheng 田汝成 (ca. 1526). Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe.

Xihu youlan zhiyu 西湖遊覽志餘 [Supplementary Gazetteer of Sightseeing around West Lake]. 1980. Tian Rucheng 田汝成. Hangzhou: Zhejiang renmin chubanshe.

Xinjuan hainei qiguan 新鎸海內奇觀 [Newly Compiled Striking Views within the Seas]. 2002. Yang Erzeng 楊爾曾. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe.

Xihu baiyong 西湖百詠 [One Hundred Poems on West Lake]. 1967. Dong Sigao 董嗣皋. In Ding Bing 丁丙 (1832–1899), Wulin zhanggu congbian 武林掌故叢編 [Collectaneum of Stories from Wulin (Hangzhou)]. Taipei: Tailian guofeng chubanshe.

Wudeng huiyuan 五燈會元 [Compendium of the Five Lamps]. 1993. Puji 普濟. In Xu zang jing 續臧經. Taipei: Xiwenfeng chuban gongsi.

Wulin jiushi 武林舊事 [Former Events in Wulin (Hangzhou)]. 1998. Zhou Mi 周密. In Meng Yu-anlao et al., Dongjing meng hua lu (wai si zhong) 東京夢華錄(外四種)[The Eastern Capital: A Dream of Splendours Past (plus four titles)]. Annotated by Zhou Feng 周峰. Beijing: Wenhua yishu chubanshe.

Zengxiu Yunlin sizhi 增修雲林寺志 [Revised and Expanded Gazetteer of the Cloud Forest Monas-tery]. 2004. Li E 厲鶚. In Wang Guoping 王國平ed.. Xihu wenxian jicheng 西湖文獻集成 [Col-lection of Literature about West Lake], vol. 22. Hangzhou: Hangzhou chubanshe.

Zoku gunsho ruijū 續群書類從 [Continued Encyclopaedia of Various Books]. 1993. Hanawa Hoki-noichi 太田藤四郎 ed. Tōkyō: Zoku Gunsho Ruijū Kanseikai.

Secondary sources:

Asakura, Shō 朝倉尚. 1977. “San So Shiki sakuhin shōron—sozai toshite no So kō tsutsumi ‘saiko shi’ ni tsuite 賛蘇軾作品小論——素材としての蘇公堤「西湖詩」について [An Essay on Su Shi’s Works: Taking “West Lake Poem” about the Su Causeway as A Case Study].” Okayama daigaku kyōyōbu kiyō 岡山大学教養部紀要: 31–59.

Benn, James A. 2015. Tea in China: A Religious and Cultural History. Honolulu: University of Ha-wai’i Press.

Cai, Dunda 蔡敦達. 2001. “Nippon no zenin niokeru chūgoku teki yōso no sesshu—jū sakai o chūshin toshite日本の禅院における中国的要素の摂取——十境を中心として [The Integration of Chinese Elements in Japanese Zen Monasteries: With a Focus on the Ten Sites].” Nihon kenkyū 日本研究 23: 13–51.

Chen Yunfei 陳雲飛. 2009. “Lüelun Tang Song shiqi xihu chachan wenhua de lishi diwei 略論唐宋時期西湖茶禪文化的歷史地位 [A Brief Discussion on the Historical Status of West Lake Tea and Zen Culture in the Tang and Song Periods].” Journal of Tea 35 (2): 114–9.

Dong, Xuejuan 董雪娟. 2019. “Cui Doucan Chengcha lu yanjiu 崔斗燦《乘槎錄》研究 [A Study of Cui Doucan’s Records of Riding on the Raft ].” Yanbian University.

Duan, Xiaolin. 2020. Rise of West Lake: A Song Dynasty Cultural Landmark. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Duan, Xiaolin. 2021. “Remembering West Lake: Place, Mobility, and Geographical Knowledge in Ming China.” Ming Qing Studies: 9–46.

Duan, Yunming. 2007. “Kaifeng Daoist Temples in the Southern Song Dynasty Hangzhou: Research in Actual Examples of Religious Cultural Changes.” Frontier History China 2: 145–165.

Ebner von Eschenbach, Silvia Freiin. 2020. “The Dilemma of Ecological and Nutritional Policies in View of Buddhist Campaigning: The Use of Hangzhou’s Xihu as a Pool for the Release of Living Beings during the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties (960–1279).” Monumenta Serica: Jour-nal of Oriental Studies 68, no. 1: 69–106.

Fang, Jian 方建. 2003. “Riseng Rongxi chicha yangsheng ji yanjiu 日僧榮西《吃茶養生記》研究 [Study on Japanese Monk Eisai’s Record of Drinking Tea and Nourishing Life].” Nongye kaogu 農業考古, vol. 4: 282.

Gu, Chengyao 辜承堯. 2013. “Riben Wushan wenxue zhong de Xihu ticai zuopin kaocha 日本五山文學中的西湖題材作品考察 [An Investigation of Works on the Theme of West Lake in Japa-nese Gozan Literature].” Master’s thesis, Zhejiang Gongshang University.

Gu, Chengyao 辜承堯. 2014. “Riben Wushan wenxue zhongde ‘Xihu tu’ kaocha日本五山文学中的《西湖图》考察 [A study on “Western Lake Painting” in Gozan Literature].” Journal of the Graduate School of East Asian Cultures, vol. 3: 111–124.

Handa, Haruhisa 半田晴久. 2006. “Riben ru Song seng yanjiu: yi Riben Hanwen shiliao wei zhongxin 日本入宋僧研究——以日本汉文史料为中心 [A Study of Japanese Monks Travelling to Song-Dynasty China: Centred on Chinese Historical Sources in Japan].” Ph.D. thesis, Zhejiang University.

Hao, Xiangman 郝祥满. 2016. Diaoran yu Songchu de Zhong Ri fofa jiaoliu 奝然与宋初的中日佛法交流 [Jōjin and Buddhist Exchanges between China and Japan in the Early Song Dynasty]. Bei-jing: Shangwu yinshuguan.

Hirade, Mirei 平出美玲. 2015. “Chūgoku zenshū jiin de yomareta daishi to “sakai” no kankei 中国禅宗寺院で詠まれた題詩と「境致」の関係 [The Relation between Poetry made at Zen Bud-dhist temples in China and the Kyochi].” Journal of the Japanese Garden Society / Editorial Board of the Japanese Garden Society 29: 23–47.

Hua, Xuemei 華雪梅. 2015. “Wushan wenxue zhong de Lin Hejing yixiang: Yi Hanlin hulu ji wei zhongxin 五山文學中的林和靖意象:以《翰林葫蘆集》為中心 [Imagery of Lin Hejing in the Gozan Literature: Centring on the Collection of the Imperial Academy’s Gourds].” In Nie Youjun 聶友軍, Quchun ji: Riben Wushan wenxue yanjiu 取醇集:日本五山文學研究 [Collection of Alcohol Extraction: A Study of Japanese Gozan Literature]. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong Daxue chubanshe, 91–104.

Huang, Shi-shan Susan. 2007. “Tianzhu lingqian: Divination Prints from a Buddhist Temple in Song Hangzhou.” Artibus Asiae 67, no. 2: 243–96.

I Lofen. 2019. “Wentu xue lilun kuangjia xia de Dongya Xihu shijing yanjiu 文圖學理論框架下的東亞西湖十景研究 [A Study of the Ten Scenes of West Lake in East Asia in the Theoretical Framework of Literature and Graphics].” In Zhang Bowei 張伯偉 ed., Yuwai hanji yanjiu jikan 域外漢籍研究集刊 [Research Series on Texts in Chinese outside China], vol. 18. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju.

Ikeda, Shirōjirō 池田四郎次郎. 1920–22. Nihon shiwa sōsho 日本詩話叢書 [Japanese Poetry Series]. Tōkyō: Bunkaidō Shoten.

Ishī, Shudo 石井修道. 1982. “Chūgoku no gosan jissetsu seido ni tsuite—daijōji shozō teraden gosan jissetsu o chūshin toshite 中国の五山十刹制度について——大乗寺所蔵寺伝五山十刹図を中心として [A Study on the Chinese System of Five Mountains and Ten Monasteries: Focusing on Daijōji Temple’s Gozan Jissatsu-zu’ kō].” Indogaku bukkyogaku kenkyū 印度学仏教学研究 31, no. 1: 15–19.

Jiang Qingqing 姜青青. 2015. “Xianchun Lin’an zhi” Songban “jingcheng situ” fuyuan yanjiu 《咸淳臨安志》宋版《京城四圖》復原研究 [A Study on the Restoration of the Song Dynasty Four Maps of the Capital City in Gazetteer of Lin’an during the Xianchun Reign]. Shanghai: Shanghai guji chubanshe.

Jin, Wenjing 金文京. 2001. “Xihu zai Zhong Ri Han: Lūetan fengjing zhuanyi zai Dongya wenxue zhong de yiyi 西湖在中日韓——略談風景轉移在東亞文學中的意義 [West Lake in China, Japan, and Korea: A Brief Discussion on the Significance of Scenery Appropriation in East Asian Litera-ture].” In Dongya wenhua yixiang zhi xingsu 東亞文化之形塑 [The Form of East Asian Culture], edited by Shi Shouqian 石守謙 and Liao Zhaoheng 廖肇亨, 141–166. Taipei: Yunchen wenhua shiye gufen youxian gongsi.

Kageki, Hideo 蔭木英雄. 1982. Kunchū Kūge nichiyō kufū ryakushū: chūsei zensō no seikatsu to bungaku 空華日用工夫略集: 中世禅僧の生活と文学 [Short Collection of Kūge’s Daily Thoughts: The Lives and Literature of Mediaeval Zen Priests]. Kyōto: Shibunkaku shuppan.

Kinpara Tadashi 金原理. 1998. “Saiko dokei: Motohisa shika gō to saikozu西湖憧憬:元久詩歌合と西湖図 [The Longing for Lake Saiko: ‘Genkyu Shikai’ and ‘Saiko Zu’].” Sō zō no Ajia 想像のアジア11: 72–86.

Lan, Jih-chang. 2014. “A Critique and Discussion of the View that Shi Miyuan Proposed the Five-Mountain, Ten-Monastery System.” Journal of Cultural Interaction in East Asia 5, no. 1: 45–66.

Lee, Hui-shu. 2001. Exquisite Moments: West Lake & Southern Song Art. New York: China Institute Gallery.

Li, Mengsheng 李夢生 ed. 2002. Songshi sanbaishou cidian 宋詩三百首辭典 [Dictionary of the Three Hundred Song Dynasty Poems]. Beijing: Hanyu dacidian chubanshe.

Li, Wei 李衛. 2007. “Edo jidai teien ni okeru Seiko keikan no hyōshō to hyōgen: Kan-shi bun shiryō no kōsatsu o tōshite 江戸時代庭園における西湖景観の表象と表現 ——漢詩文史料の考察を通して [Representation and Expression of the West Lake Landscape in Edo Pe-riod Gardens: Through a Study of Chinese Poetry and Historical Documents].” In National Insti-tute of Japanese Literature, The 30th International Conference on Japanese Literature, 45–68.

Li, Yiwen. 2021. “Useless Tribute, Desirable Exotics: Japanese Folding Fans in China, 1000–1500.” Sungkyun Journal of East Asian Studies 21 (1): 27–49.

Liang Sicheng 梁思成 trans. 1932. “Da Tang Wushan zhutang tu kao 大唐五山諸堂圖考 [An Exam-ination of the Pictures of the Five Mountain Halls of the Great Tang Dynasty].” Bulletin of the In-stitute for Research in Chinese Architecture, vol.3, no. 3 (September): 71–84.

Ma Rui 馬瑞. 2016. “Lishi Chaoxian shiqi wenren bixia de Xihu xingxiang yanjiu李氏朝鮮時期文人筆下的 “西湖” 形象研究 [A Study of the Image of “West Lake” in the Writings of the Literati during the Joseon Dynasty].” Kaifeng jiaoyu xueyuan xuebao 開封教育學院學報 10: 18–20.

Miyazaki, Noriko 宮崎法子. 1984. “Saiko wo meguru kaiga 西湖をめぐる絵画 [Paintings of West Lake].” In Kaoru Umehara 梅原郁 ed., Chugoku kinsei no toshi to bunka 中國近世の都市と文化 [Cities and Culture in Early Modern China.]. Kyoto-shi: Kyoto daigaku jinbun kagaku kenkyujo.

Mori, Katsumi 森克己. 2009. Shinpen Mori Katsumi Chosakushū 2: Zoku Nissō bōeki no kenkyū 新編森克己著作集 第2巻 続日宋貿易の研究 [New Edition of Katsumi Mori’s Works, vol. 2: Continued Studies on the Trade between Japan and the Sung Dynasty], 1–396. Tokyo: Bensei shuppan.

Mou Zhenyu牟振宇. 2008. “Nan Song Lin’an cheng simiao fenbu yanjiu 南宋臨安城寺廟分布研究 [Study on the Distribution of Temples in Southern Song Lin’an City].” Hangzhou shifan daxue xuebao 杭州師範大學學報 1: 95–101.

Nishijima Sadao 西嶋定生. 2002. “Higashi Ajia sekai no keisei to tenkai 東アジア世界の形成と展開 [Formation and Development of the East Asian World].” Nishijima Sadao Higashi Ajia shi ron-shū 西嶋定生東アジア史論集 [Collection of Articles on East Asian History by Nishijima Sadao], vol.3. Higashi Ajia sekai to sakuhō taisei 東アジア世界と冊封体制 [The East Asian World and the Tributary System], 61–94. Tōkyō: Iwanami shoten.

Oba, Osamu 大庭脩. 1967. “Edo jidai ni okeru tōsen mochiwatarisho no kenkyū 江戶時代における唐船持渡書の研究 [Research on the Cargo Lists of Chinese Trading Vessels in the Edo period].” Kansai Daigaku Tōzai Gakujutsu Kenkyūjo 関西大学経済論集 17 (3): 119–24.

Oota Takahiko 太田孝彦. 1986. “On ‘Saiko-zu’ by Nyoyori. 如寄筆「西湖図」について [A Study on the Painting of West Lake by Nyoyori].” Tezukayama gakuin daigaku kenkyū ronshū 帝塚山学院大学研究論集: 127–142.

Shih Shou-Chien 石守謙. 2015. Yidong de Taohuayuan: Dongya shijie zhong de shanshuihua 移動的桃花源:東亞世界中的山水畫 [The Peach Blossom Spring on the Move: Landscape Painting in the World of East Asia]. Beijing: Sanlian shudian.

Shimizu, Kunihiko 清水邦彦. 2009. “Daijōji zō ‘Gozan Jissatsu-zu’ kō 大乗寺蔵《五山十刹図》考 [Painting of Five Mountains and Ten Monasteries Preserved in the Daijōji Temple].” Hikaku minzoku kenkyū 比較民族研究 23: 152–60.

Sun, Liang 孫良. 2008. “Nan Song shiqi Hangzhou Fojiao wenhua chutan 南宋時期杭州佛教文化初探 [A Preliminary Study of Buddhist Cultures in Hangzhou during the Southern Song Dynasty].” Xihu xue luncong 西湖學論叢, 2: 74–79.

Sun, Qian 孫遷. 2017. “Riben ru Nan Song lüseng yanjiu 日本入南宋旅僧研究 [A Study of Japanese Monks Travelling to Southern-Song China].” Master’s thesis, Hebei University.

Sun, Xun 孫旭. 2010. “Songdai Hangzhou simiao yanjiu 宋代杭州寺院研究 [A Study of Hangzhou Monasteries in the Song Dynasty].” Master’s thesis, Shanghai Normal University.

Suzuki, Shinobu 鈴木忍. 2010. “Muromachi kōki ni okeru seikozu keisei ni kan-suru kenkyū 室町後期における西湖図形成に関する研究 [A Study on the Formation of the West Lake Painting in the Late Muromachi Period].”

Taki, Seīchi 瀧精一. 1998. “Kari Noyama yukihitsu saikozu heifū: kuni hana 狩野山雪筆西湖 図屏風:国花 [The Screen of West Lake Painting by Kari Noyama: a National Treasure].” Kuni ka 30: 13, 15, 29–31.

Uemura, Kanko上村観光 ed. 1936. Gozan bungaku zenshū 五山文學全集 [Complete Collection of Gozan Literature]. Tōkyō: Gozan bungaku zenshū kankōkai.

Wang, Yong 王勇. 2018. “Dongya yujing zhongde Xihu yixiang 東亞語境中的西湖意象 [The image-ry of West Lake in the East Asian Context].” Dongya wenhua huanliu shijiang 東亞文化環流十講 [Ten Lectures on the Circulation of East Asian Culture]. Shanghai: Shanghai Jiaotong Daxue chu-banshe.

Wang, Yuanming 王元明, and Masuda, Tomokuni 增田明州. 1993. Zhong Ri youhao qianjiashi中日友好千家詩 [One Thousand Poems on the Friendship between China and Japan]. Shanghai: Xuel-in chubanshe.

Wang, Zhongyao王仲尧. 2005. “Nan Song Lin’an ji Ming Qing Hangzhou Daojiao gongguan kao南宋臨安及明清杭州道教宮觀考 [An Examination of Daoist Temples in Southern Song Lin’an and Ming and Qing Hangzhou].” Hangzhou shifan daxue xuebao 杭州師範大學學報 6: 42–46.

Yan, Ni 嚴妮. 2020. “Song Yuan shiqi Zhong Ri chanseng jiaoliu dui Riben zhongshi tingyuan wenhua de yingxiang 宋元時期中日禪僧交流對日本中世庭院文化的影響 [The Impact of Sino-Japanese Exchanges among Zen Monks during the Song and Yuan Dynasties on the Garden Cul-ture of Mediaeval Japan].” Master’s thesis, Beijing Forestry University.

Yang, Shuqi 楊舒淇. 1998. “Nippon ni okeru Chūgoku Kōshū Saiko no fūkei ime-ji no teichakuka ni tsuite no kōsatsu日本における中国杭州西湖の風景イメージの定着化 についての考察 [A Study on the Image Formation of the West Lake Scenery of Hangzhou, China, in the Mind of the Japanese].” Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture 62 (5): 469–472.

Yoshifumi Demura 出村嘉史, Megumi Arakawa 荒川愛, and Huguchi Tadahiko 樋口忠彦. 2006. “天龍寺における十境と景域に関する研究 [The Strategy of Jikkyo and the Landscape Area of Tenryu-ji Temple in Kyoto].” Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan 41: 529–34.

Zhang Dongzhuo 張東杓. 2014. “Chaoxian qianqi zhishi jieceng dui Hangzhou Xihu de xiangxiang yuqi neihan 朝鮮前期知識階層對杭州西湖的想像與其內涵 [The Imagination of Hangzhou’s West Lake by the Intellectual Classes of the Early Joseon Dynasty and its Significance].” History and the World 역사와 세계, 46: 209–220.

Zhang Shiqing 張十慶. 2000. Wushan shicha tu yu Nan Song Jiangnan chansi 五山十剎圖與南宋江南禪寺 [Diagram of the Five Mountains and Ten Monasteries and Buddhist Monasteries in the Southern-Song Lower Yangtze Region]. Nanjing: Dongnan Daxue chubanshe.

Zhuansun, Zhangjie 顓孫張傑. 2005. “Lin’an de fosi yu lüyou wenhua yanjiu 臨安的佛寺與旅遊文化研究 [A Study on Buddhist Temples and Tourism Culture in Lin’an].” MA thesis, Shanghai Normal University.




How to Cite

Duan, X. (2023). Japanese Gozan Monks and Hangzhou’s West Lake: Visualising Cultural Appropriation in Middle Period East Asia. The Journal of the European Association for Chinese Studies, 4, 169–197. https://doi.org/10.25365/jeacs.2023.4.duan



Culture and Memory